Firearm Rules

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EARLY FIREARMS ARE ALLOWED IN THIS CAMPAIGNBUT NO ADVANCED FIREARMS!
Firearms work differently from other ranged projectile weapons—they instead use the following rules:
Firearm Proficiency: The Exotic Weapon Proficiency (firearms) feat allows you to use all firearms without penalty. A nonproficient character takes the standard –4 penalty on attack rolls with firearms, and a nonproficient character who loads a firearm increases all misfire values by 4 for the shots he loads. Even though the Exotic Weapon Proficiency (firearms) feat grants you proficiency with all firearms, anytime you take a feat that modifies a single type of weapon (such as Weapon Focus or Rapid Reload), you must still pick one specific type of firearm (such as musket, axe musket, blunderbuss, pistol, or double pistol) for that feat to affect.
All firearms are part of the same weapon group for the purposes of the fighter’s weapon training class feature.
Capacity: A firearm’s capacity is the number of shots it can hold at one time. When making a full-attack action, you may fire a firearm as many times in a round as you have attacks, up to this limit, unless you can reload the weapon as a swift or free action while making a full attack action. In the case of early firearms, capacity often indicates the number of barrels a firearm has. In the case of advanced firearms, it typically indicates the number of chambers the weapon has.
Range and Penetration: Armor, whether manufactured or natural, provides little protection against the force of a bullet at short range.
Early Firearms: When firing an early firearm, the attack resolves against the target’s touch AC when the target is within the first range increment of the weapon, but this type of attack is not considered a touch attack for the purposes of feats and abilities such as Deadly Aim. At higher range increments, the attack resolves normally, including taking the normal cumulative –2 penalty for each full range increment. Unlike other projectile weapons, early firearms have a maximum range of five range increments. Early firearms are muzzle-loaded, requiring bullets or pellets and black powder to be rammed down the muzzle. If an early firearm has multiple barrels, each barrel must be loaded separately. It is a standard action to load each barrel of a one-handed early firearm and a full-round action to load each barrel of a two-handed early firearm. It takes three full-round actions by one person to load a siege firearm. This can be reduced to two full-round actions if more than one person is loading the cannon.
Advanced Firearms: Not allowed in this campaign.
Loading a Firearm: You need at least one hand free to load one-handed and two-handed firearms. In the case of two-handed firearms, you hold the weapon in one hand and load it with the other—you only need to hold it in two hands to aim and shoot the firearm. Loading siege firearms requires both hands, and one hand usually manipulates a large ramrod (which can be wielded as a club in combat). The Rapid Reload feat reduces the time required to load one-handed and two-handed firearms, but this feat does not reduce the time it takes to load siege firearms. Loading any firearm provokes attacks of opportunity. Other rules for loading a firearm depend on whether the firearm is an early firearm or an advanced firearm.
Misfires: If the natural result of your attack roll falls within a firearm’s misfire value, that shot misses, even if you would have otherwise hit the target. When a firearm misfires, it gains the broken condition. While it has the broken condition, it suffers the normal disadvantages that broken weapons do, and its misfire value increases by 4 unless the wielder has gun training in the particular type of firearm. In that case, the misfire value increases by 2 instead of 4.
Early Firearms: If an early firearm with the broken condition misfires again, it explodes. When a nonmagical firearm explodes, the weapon is destroyed. Magical firearms are wrecked, which means they can’t fire until they are fully restored (which requires either the make whole spell or the Gunsmithing feat). When a gun explodes, pick one corner of your square—the explosion creates a burst from that point of origin. Each firearm has a burst size noted in parentheses after its misfire value. Any creature within this burst (including the firearm’s wielder) takes damage as if it had been hit by the weapon—a DC 12 Reflex save halves this damage.
Ammunition: Firearm ammunition takes two forms: either black powder and shot (either bullets or pellets) or cartridges. Unlike other types of ammunition, firearm ammunition is destroyed when it is used, and has no chance of being retrieved on a miss. No part of a cartridge can be reused to create new cartridges. Firearm ammunition cannot be treated with poison, unless you are using a pitted bullet.
Concealing Firearms Like light weapons and hand crossbows, one-handed firearms are easy to conceal on your person. Some smaller firearms (like the coat pistol) can grant bonuses to conceal a weapon on your person.
Inappropriately Sized Firearms: You cannot make optimum use of a firearm that is not properly sized for you. A cumulative –2 penalty applies on attack rolls for each size category of difference between your size and the size of the firearm. If you are not proficient with the firearm, a –4 nonproficiency penalty also applies. The size of a firearm never affects how many hands you need to use to shoot it, the exception being siege firearms and Large or larger creatures. In most cases, a Large or larger creature can use a siege firearm as a two-handed firearm, but the creature takes a –4 penalty for using it this way because of its awkwardness.
Bucklers: You can use a one-handed or two-handed firearm without penalty while carrying a buckler.
Fire while Prone: Firearms, like crossbows, can be fired while their wielders are prone.
Firearms, Black Powder, and Water: Black powder becomes useless when exposed to water, but powder horns and cartridges protect black powder from exposure. You cannot normally load an early firearm underwater or fire any firearm underwater without magical aid.
Deflecting and Snatching Bullets: The Deflect Arrows feat and the Snatch Arrows feat can be used to deflect bullets, but not pellets shot from a scatter weapon. Neither of these feats can be used to deflect siege firearm attacks.

Early Firearm Descriptions
There are two general categories of firearms: early and advanced. Firearms are further divided into one-handed, two-handed, and siege firearms. As the category’s name implies, one-handed firearms need only one hand to wield and shoot. Two-handed firearms work best when you use two hands while shooting them. Two-handed firearms can be shot with one hand at a –4 penalty on the attack roll. Siege weapons are typically mounted on some sort of platform, movable or otherwise, and have greater power but a much slower rate of fire.
Scatter Weapon Quality: A weapon with the scatter weapon quality can shoot two different types of ammunition. It can fire normal bullets that target one creature, or it can make a scattering shot, attacking all creatures within a cone. Cannons with the scatter weapon quality only fire grapeshot, unless their descriptions state otherwise. When a scatter weapon attacks all creatures within a cone, it makes a separate attack roll against each creature within the cone. Each attack roll takes a –2 penalty, and its attack damage cannot be modified by precision damage or damage-increasing feats such as Vital Strike. Effects that grant concealment, such as fog or smoke, or the blur, invisibility, or mirror image spells, do not foil a scatter attack. If any of the attack rolls threaten a critical, confirm the critical for that attack roll alone. A firearm that makes a scatter shot misfires only if all of the attack rolls made misfire. If a scatter weapon explodes on a misfire, it deals triple its damage to all creatures within the misfire radius.

Early Firearms
Early firearms are typically matchlock, wheellock, or flintlock weapons, and require more finesse and care to use than advanced firearms. Early firearms are muzzle-loaded, requiring a bullet and powder (or other special alchemical substances) to be shoved down the barrel before the weapon is fired. Early firearm ammunition can be loaded from a cartridge, but that cartridge is made of soft material (like paper or cloth) that is torn open so that the contents may be shoved down the barrel.
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FIREARM ATTACK SEQUENCE
Check prerequisites:
 Must have Exotic Weapon Proficiency (Firearms) or -4 to attack.
 Weapon size matches user or -2 penalty to attack for every size difference.
 Range of target is within weapon range or -2 for each additional range segment up to a max of 5 increments.
Load Weapon:
 1 Standard action to load a single barrel (requiring 2 hands). Note: Provokes an attack of opportunity (when applicable).
Fire Weapon:
 Roll d20 (Range attack minus penalties that apply from above vs. Target Touch AC)
 Check natural die roll for possible weapon misfire (see weapon stats):
 If 1st misfire = Weapon is considered broken and is at -4 for next use.
 If 2nd misfire = Weapon explodes in blast radius (see weapon stats):
 Roll weapon damage
 Save Reflex DC 12 for ½ damage
 If no misfire = Check Target Touch AC:
 If hit = Roll weapon damage
 If miss = Reload next round

FIREARM DESCRIPTIONS
Blunderbuss: This weapon fires pellets or a bullet from its trumpet-shaped barrel, making it an effective fowling weapon or close-fighting personal defense weapon. The blunderbuss fires in a 15-foot cone when firing pellets, and has a 10-foot range increment when firing a bullet. A blunderbuss uses a bullet or pellets and a single dose of black powder or a single alchemical cartridge as ammunition.
Buckler Gun: The front of this buckler is fitted with a small, double-barreled gun that can be shot while wearing the buckler. Unlike with a double-barreled pistol, you can only shoot one barrel at a time. You must remove the buckler to reload the gun. Each barrel of a buckler gun uses a bullet and 1 dose of black powder or single alchemical cartridge as ammunition. Because of its awkward construction, a buckler gun is always considered an off-handed weapon.
Culverin (Hand Bombard): The culverin, also known as a hand bombard, consists of a simple smoothbore tube, sealed at one end except for a small hole used to ignite a gunpowder charge. A wooden stock partially encases the barrel, allowing the wielder to hold it under his arm with relative ease when carrying it. Firing a culverin without support (such as a wall, a window, or a stand) imparts a –4 penalty on the attack rolls, and the wielder is knocked prone. A culverin uses 4 doses of black powder and grapeshot. Note that these statistics simulate only the original, hand-held culverins—their larger descendants are considered cannons and are dealt with in the section on siege weapons.
Double Hackbut: This double-length rifle uses a pair of trunnions to mount its barrel into a swiveling mechanism fastened to a lightweight, two-wheeled carriage. It takes a full-round action to set up the carriage. The carriage has a hind leg, allowing the wielder to wheel the device about and immediately prop it for stability during combat. Unlike other two-handed firearms, you must fire the double hackbut while it is mounted, or else firing it imparts a –4 penalty on attack rolls and the recoil knocks the wielder prone. A Large or larger creature can fire a double hackbut one size smaller than it is without its mounting as a normal two-handed weapon and without the danger of being knocked prone, but takes the normal penalty for firing an inappropriately sized weapon.
Fire Lance: This primitive firearm is nothing more than a long tube that, when ignited, propels a short gout of flame and a javelin. Unlike other firearms, the fire lance is wildly imprecise, and targets AC rather than touch AC. A fire lance is always treated as having the broken condition for the purpose of determining the effects of a misfire. A fire lances uses a javelin and 2 doses of black powder as ammunition.
Musket: This long-barreled firearm has a much greater range than a pistol. A musket uses either a bullet and a single dose of black powder or an alchemical cartridge as its ammunition.
Musket, Axe: This musket features an axe blade at the end of its barrel. It can be used as both a musket and a battleaxe. It is considered a double weapon for purposes of creating masterwork or magical versions of this weapon. If this firearm gains the broken condition, both the firearm component and the axe are considered broken. An axe musket uses either a bullet and a single dose of black powder or an alchemical cartridge as ammunition.
Musket, Double-Barreled: This musket has two parallel barrels; each barrel can be shot independently as a separate action, or both can be fired at once as the same attack. If both barrels are fired at once, they must both target the same creature or object, and the gun becomes wildly inaccurate, taking a –4 penalty on each shot. Each barrel of a double barreled musket uses either a bullet and a single dose of black powder or an alchemical cartridge as ammunition.
Musket, Warhammer: This musket has a warhammer head at the end of its barrel, which allows it to be used as both a musket and a warhammer. It is considered a double weapon for purposes of creating masterwork or magical versions of this weapon. If this firearm gains the broken condition, both the firearm component and the warhammer are considered broken. A warhammer musket uses either a bullet and a single dose of black powder or an alchemical cartridge as ammunition. Pepperbox: This pistol has six barrels instead of one. The entire barrel housing can be quickly rotated by hand between shots (a free action requiring one free hand), allowing all six bullets to be fired before the weapon must be reloaded. Each barrel of a pepperbox uses either a bullet and a single dose of black powder or a single alchemical cartridge as ammunition.
Pistol: The single-shot pistol is one of the most common firearms, although in most campaigns it is still rare enough to be an object of envy or curiosity to most. A pistol uses either a bullet and a singe dose of black powder or an alchemical cartridge as ammunition.
Pistol, Coat: Less powerful than other firearms, this pistol is small enough to be easily concealed in a jacket or coat. You get a +2 bonus on Sleight of Hand checks made to conceal a coat pistol on your body. A coat pistol uses either a bullet and a single dose of black powder or an alchemical cartridge as ammunition.
Pistol, Dagger: A combination of a coat pistol and a blade, the dagger pistol can be used as both weapons. The awkwardness of the configuration means you do not gain the bonus on Sleight of Hand checks that either of those stand-alone weapons grants. The dagger pistol is considered a double weapon for the purpose of creating masterwork or magical versions of this weapon. If this firearm gains the broken condition, both the firearm component and the dagger component are considered broken. A dagger pistol uses either a bullet and a single dose of black powder or an alchemical cartridge as ammunition.
Pistol, Double-Barreled: This pistol has two parallel barrels; each barrel can be fired independently as a separate action, or both can be shot at once with the same action. If both barrels are shot at once, they must both target the same creature or object, and the pistol becomes wildly inaccurate, imparting a –4 penalty on each shot.
Pistol, Dragon: Like a miniature blunderbuss, the dragon pistol fires pellets or a bullet from its flared barrel. The dragon pistol fires in a 15-foot cone when firing pellets, and has a 10-foot range increment when firing a bullet. For ammunition, a dragon pistol uses a bullet or group of pellets and a single dose of black powder, or else a single alchemical cartridge (with either bullets or pellets) as ammunition.
Pistol, Sword Cane: A combination weapon, this gun mixes a coat pistol with a sword cane. The sword cane pistol is considered a double weapon for the purpose of creating masterwork or magical versions of this weapon. The pistol attachment makes the nature of the weapon a little more difficult to hide. An observer must make a DC 15 Perception check to realize that an undrawn sword cane pistol is a weapon rather than a walking stick; the DC decreases to 5 if the observer is able to handle the weapon. A sword cane pistol uses either a bullet and a single dose of black powder or an alchemical cartridge as ammunition. The sword part of the weapon must be drawn in order to load the pistol part of the weapon.
(Source: Pathfinder Ultimate Combat (2011) Eric Mona, Paizo Publishing, LLC)

Firearm Rules

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